Symptoms of infection with HIV / AIDS in Children


HIV infection from an important child health issue in many countries. In general, management of specific conditions of children with HIV infection are similar to the handling of the other children.

Most infections in children with HIV-positive infections caused by pathogens that are the same as in children with HIV-negative infections, although it may be more frequent, more severe and occur repeatedly. However, some of it was caused by an unusual pathogen.

Most children with HIV-positive actually died of the disease that usually attacks children. Most of these deaths can be prevented through early diagnosis and treatment of the right, or by routine immunization and nutrition. In particular, these children are at greatest risk for pneumococcal infection and got pulmonary tuberculosis. Prevention with cotrimoxazole and ART can greatly reduce the number of children who die prematurely.

Transmission of HIV from mother to child (without Antiretroviral prevention) is estimated to range between 15-45%. Evidence from industrialized countries suggests that transmission can be greatly reduced (to less than 2% in some recent studies) with the provision of antiretrovirals during pregnancy and at birth and with replacement feeding and elective surgical emperor.

Clinical Diagnosis

The clinical features of HIV infection in children varies widely. Some children with HIV-positive partners showed HIV-related complaints and symptoms were severe in the first year of life. HIV-positive children with others may remain asymptomatic or with mild symptoms for over a year and survive for several years.

Children referred to as “Suspect HIV” if found following symptoms, which are not commonly found in children with HIV-negative.

Symptoms that indicate the possibility of HIV infection:

  • Recurrent infections: three or more episodes of severe bacterial infections (such as pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, cellulitis) in the last 12 months.
  • Thrush: Erythema white pseudomembranous palate, gums and cheek mucosa. After the neonatal period, the discovery of thrush without antibiotic treatment, or lasts more than 30 days despite treatment, or relapse, or extends beyond the tongue – most likely an infection. Also typical when stretched over the back of the throat that showed esophageal candidiasis.
  • Chronic parotitis: parotid swelling uni-or bi-lateral for = 14 days, with or without pain or fever followed.
  • Generalized lymphadenopathy: there are enlarged lymph nodes in two or more extra-inguinal region with no apparent underlying cause.
  • Hepatomegaly without obvious cause: the absence of a concurrent viral infection such as cytomegalovirus.
  • Persistent fever and / or recurrent: fever (> 38 ° C) takes = 7 days, or occurs more than once within 7 days.
  • Neurological dysfunction: a progressive neurological deterioration, mikrosefal, delayed development, hipertonia or confused (confusion).
  • Herpes zoster.
  • HIV dermatitis: erythematous and papular rash. Skin rash typically include extensive fungal infections of the skin, nails and scalp, and extensive molluscum contagiosum.
  • With chronic suppurative lung disease (chronic suppurative lung disease). Symptoms commonly found in children with HIV infection, but also commonly found in children with HIV infection who are not sick.
  • Chronic otitis media: discharge / pus from the ear and lasted = 14 days.
  • Persistent diarrhea: last = 14 days.
  • Undernourished or malnourished: weight loss or decreased weight gain is slowly but certainly compared to growth should, as stated in the KMS. Suspect HIV particularly in infants aged <6 months who are breastfed and failure to thrive.

Symptoms or conditions that are very specific to children with positive HIV infection

Allegedly HIV infection if it is found the following: pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), oesophageal candidiasis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) or Kaposi’s sarcoma. This situation is very specific to children with HIV infection. Recto-vaginal fistula obtained in young women are also very specific but rare.

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