Secondary achalasia .
caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes destruction of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, duodenum, colon, and ureter;
polio, and autonomic neuropathy in diabetes
The wall of the esophagus may be of normal thickness, thicker than normal because of hypertrophy of the muscularis, or markedly thinned by dilation
The myenteric ganglia are usually absent from the body of the esophagus
Inflammation in the location of the esophageal myenteric plexus is pathognomonic of the disease
stasis of food may produce mucosal inflammation and ulceration proximal
progressive dysphagia and inability to completely convey food to the stomach. Nocturnal regurgitation and aspiration of undigested food may occur,
hazard of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.