You may be surprised to know that cholesterol itself is not bad. In fact, cholesterol is only one of the many substances created and used by our body to stay healthy. Some of the cholesterol we need is produced naturally (and can be affected by your family health history), while some of them from the foods we eat.

There are two types of cholesterol: “good” and “bad.” It is important to understand the difference, and to know the levels of “good” and “bad” cholesterol in the blood. Excess of one type – or not enough of another – can put at risk of coronary heart disease, heart attack or stroke.

Cholesterol comes from two sources: the body and foods. The liver and other cells in your body produce about 75 percent of blood cholesterol. The other 25 percent comes from the foods you eat. Cholesterol is found only in animal products.

A cholesterol test measures the level of HDL and LDL. HDL is “good” cholesterol that helps keep LDL (bad) to get lodged in the walls of the arteries. A healthy level of HDL cholesterol may also protect against heart attack and stroke, while low levels of HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg / dL for men and less than 50 mg / dL for women) have been shown to increase the risk of heart disease.

If you need to increase your HDL level to achieve their goals, studies show that regular physical activity can help the body to produce more HDL. Decrease in trans fat and eating a balanced, nutritious diet is another way to increase HDL. If these measures are not sufficient to increase the HDL to the goal, your doctor may prescribe a medication specifically to increase HDL.

LDL cholesterol is bad cholesterol. “When too much of it circulates in the blood can clog arteries, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke.

LDL cholesterol is produced naturally by the body, but many people inherit genes from their mother, father or even grandparents who have to make too much. Eating saturated fat, trans fat and dietary cholesterol also increases the amount you have. If high cholesterol is present in your family, lifestyle changes may not be enough to help reduce LDL cholesterol in the blood. Each person is different, so work with your doctor to find an appropriate treatment plan for you.
In countries like Mexico, Argentina, Venezuela and Brazil, hypertension ranks among the top five risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiovascular diseases originate, at present, 31 percent of deaths in Latin America.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 7.6 million people die annually from heart attacks and more than 5 million cerebro vascular events. Given this, estimates that by the year 2020, worldwide deaths from stroke (CVA) will reach 25 million, becoming the leading cause of disability worldwide.

 Increased risk of heart attack are abdominal obesity, stress, hypertension, smoking and high cholesterol levels. Abdominal obesity in this part of the world is the cardiovascular risk factor more decisive than in other continents, due to the socio-economic changes experienced by the Latin American population in recent times has contributed to a rapid increase in obesity.

The increased consumption of energy-dense foods and sedentary lifestyles, which occurs in many developing countries, is helping to significantly increase the percentage of patients with cardiovascular disease.

What is it?
Myocardial infarction is the clinical picture produced by the death of a portion of heart muscle that occurs when a coronary artery completely blocked. heart muscle lacks oxygen for too long, the tissue in that area die and not regenerate.

For the heart to function properly, the blood must flow through the coronary arteries. However, these arteries can become narrowed hindering circulation. This blockage interrupts the blood supply to the heart muscle fibers. Blood to stop receiving, these fibers die permanently. Myocardial infarction occurs when a blood clot (coronary thrombosis) blocks a narrowed artery. Myocardial infarction usually does not happen suddenly. You can reach caused by arteriosclerosis, a prolonged process that narrows the coronary arteries.

Myocardial infarction is manifested by pain or pressure in the chest, feeling of exhaustion, tiredness, dizziness and pain or cramps in his left arm. These pains subside even if the person does not get rest. The usual symptoms are:

Intense and prolonged chest pain, which is perceived as intense pressure and can spread to the arms and shoulders (especially left), back and even teeth and jaw. The pain is described as a huge fist twisted heart. Is similar to angina but longer and not stop even if it applies a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue.
Shortness of breath.
Dizziness. It is the only symptom in 10 percent.
Others may occur: nausea, vomiting, weakness and sweating.

The risk of suffering a heart attack can be avoided by following some guidelines for healthy living:
Stop smoking
Eating a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereals.
Avoid alcoholic beverages


ECG monitoring: It is a fundamental element for the diagnosis of acute infarction, because it also allows their evolution. The patient is kept controlled through an electrocardiogram monitor all the time remaining in the coronary care unit of the hospital is a graphical representation of the electrical forces that work on the heart. During the cardiac cycle of pumping and filling, a changing pattern of electrical pulses accurately reflect the action of the heart. It is painless and usually done with the patient stretching and quiet, except when carried out during a stress test. Only detects changes in the time pain occurs. Subsequently, only used to confirm or rule out if there was damage to the heart.

Blood: The data can be obtained through laboratory analysis of truly relevant for diagnosis is the increased serum activity of certain enzymes that are released into the bloodstream due to necrosis is occurring. To the latter surely enzyme values ​​are taken in series during the first 3 days. The maximum values ​​of these enzymes present a discrete correlation with the extent of necrosis, but also must take into account other factors that influence their level of activity. In short, this is a complex value calculation. Moreover, parameters of interest are also obtained for the forecast, as the level of cholesterol, blood sugar (diabetes increases the risk of heart disease) and thyroid hormone (an overactive thyroid can cause cardiac abnormalities).

Stress test can be done on a stationary bicycle or a treadmill. Electrodes are placed on the body (for recording the electrocardiogram) and a pressure cuff and the patient walks the bike or treadmill. The physician supervising the test while the changes observed in blood pressure, pulse and EKG tracings. The test is completed in half an hour (leave if there are changes that suggest disease in the observed parameters, or if the patient does not tolerate physically exhausted or difficulty breathing).

Isotope study related to the stress test consists of the isotope study of the heart. It involves injecting a small dose of radioactive isotope into a vein during exercise test on treadmill. A special device records a series of pictures of the locations of the isotope in the heart (the dark areas indicate parts of the heart where there is no good blood flow). However, do not give information on the blocked artery in particular. There are different types of isotope scan, scintigraphy, which increases the sensitivity and specificity of exercise testing in men, the ventriculography for determining rapidly ventricular volume and detect areas of abnormal mobility caused by ischemia, very Looking useful prognosis and scan that can detect defects in the expansion or contraction of the heart wall, a sign that the arteries do not carry enough oxygenated blood to the area.
Cardiac catheterization and angiography is the most appropriate technique to determine the possible presence and extent of coronary artery disease. Coronary angiography to determine the location and degree of obstruction of arterial lesions that may have occurred. Not be performed when the patient presents with clotting disorders, heart failure, ventricular dysfunction, conditions that also prevent any cardiac surgery.

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