Coconut Oil – Edible
INCI: Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil
Coconut oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). It has various applications in food, medicine, and industry. Because of its high saturated fat content it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to two years without spoiling.
Many health organizations advise against the consumption of high amounts of coconut oil due to its high levels of saturated fat.
Coconut oil can be extracted through “dry” or “wet” processing. Dry processing requires the meat to be extracted from the shell and dried using fire, sunlight, or kilns to create copra. The copra is pressed or dissolved with solvents, producing the coconut oil and a high-protein, high-fiber mash. The mash is of poor quality for human consumption and is instead fed to ruminants; there is no process to extract protein from the mash. A portion of the oil extracted from copra is lost to the process of extraction.
The all-wet process uses raw coconut rather than dried copra, and the protein in the coconut creates an emulsion of oil and water. The more problematic step is breaking up the emulsion to recover the oil. This used to be done by prolonged boiling, but this produces a discolored oil and is not economical; modern techniques use centrifuges and pre-treatments including cold, heat, acids, salts, enzymes, electrolysis, shock waves, or some combination of them. Despite numerous variations and technologies, wet processing is less viable than dry processing due to a 10–15% lower yield, even compared to the losses due to spoilage and pests with dry processing. Wet processes also require investment of equipment and energy, incurring high capital and operating costs.
Proper harvesting of the coconut (the age of a coconut can be 2 to 20 months when picked) makes a significant difference in the efficacy of the oil-making process. Copra made from immature nuts is more difficult to work with and produces an inferior product with lower yields.
Conventional coconut oil uses hexane as a solvent to extract up to 10% more oil than just using rotary mills and expellers. The oil is then refined to remove certain free fatty acids, in order to reduce susceptibility to rancidification. Other processes to increase shelf life include using copra with a moisture content below 6%, keeping the moisture content of the oil below 0.2%, heating the oil to 130–150 °C (266–302 °F) and adding salt or citric acid.
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) can be produced from fresh coconut meat, milk, or residue. Producing it from the fresh meat involves removing the shell and washing, then either wet-milling or drying the residue, and using a screw press to extract the oil. VCO can also be extracted from fresh meat by grating and drying it to a moisture content of 10–12%, then using a manual press to extract the oil. Producing it from coconut milk involves grating the coconut and mixing it with water, then squeezing out the oil. The milk can also be fermented for 36–48 hours, the oil removed, and the cream heated to remove any remaining oil. A third option involves using a centrifuge to separate the oil from the other liquids. Coconut oil can also be extracted from the dry residue left over from the production of coconut milk.
A thousand of mature coconuts weighing approximately 1,440 kilograms (3,170 lb) yield around 170 kilograms (370 lb) of copra from which around 70 litres (15 imp gal) of coconut oil can be extracted.
RBD stands for “refined, bleached, and deodorized.” RBD oil is usually made from copra (dried coconut kernel).
The dried copra is placed in a hydraulic press with added heat and the oil is extracted. This yields up practically all the oil present, amounting to more than 60% of the dry weight of the coconut.
This “crude” coconut oil is not suitable for consumption because it contains contaminants and must be refined with further heating and filtering.
Another method for extraction of a “high-quality” coconut oil involves the enzymatic action of alpha-amylase, polygalacturonases, and proteases on diluted coconut paste.
Unlike virgin coconut oil, refined coconut oil has no coconut taste or aroma. RBD oil is used for home cooking, commercial food processing, and cosmetic, industrial, and pharmaceutical purposes.
RBD coconut oil can be processed further into partially or fully hydrogenated oil to increase its melting point. Since virgin and RBD coconut oils melt at 24 °C (76 °F), foods containing coconut oil tend to melt in warm climates. A higher melting point is desirable in these warm climates, so the oil is hydrogenated. The melting point of hydrogenated coconut oil is 36–40 °C (97–104 °F).
In the process of hydrogenation, unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids) are combined with hydrogen in a catalytic process to make them more saturated. Coconut oil contains only 6% monounsaturated and 2% polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the partial hydrogenation process, some of these are transformed into trans fatty acids.
Fractionated coconut oil is a fraction of the whole oil, in which the different medium-chain fatty acids are separated for specific uses. Lauric acid, a 12-carbon chain fatty acid, is often removed because of its high value for industrial and medical purposes. The fractionation of coconut oil may be used to make caprylic/capric triglyceride oil. Medium-chain triglycerides such as caprylic/capric triglyceride oil are most frequently used for medical applications, special diets, and cosmetics, sometimes also being used as a carrier oil for fragrances.
Many health organizations advise against the consumption of high amounts of coconut oil due to its high levels of saturated fat, including the United States Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization, International College of Nutrition, the United States Department of Health and Human Services, American Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, British National Health Service, and Dietitians of Canada.
Coconut oil contains a large proportion of lauric acid—a saturated fat that raises blood cholesterol levels by increasing the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This may create a more favourable blood cholesterol profile, although it is unclear whether coconut oil may promote atherosclerosis through other pathways. Because much of the saturated fat of coconut oil is in the form of lauric acid, coconut oil may be a better alternative to partially hydrogenated vegetable oil when solid fats are required. In addition, virgin coconut oil (VCO) is composed mainly of medium-chain triglycerides, which may not carry the same risks as other saturated fats.
Advocacy against coconut and palm oils in the 1970s and 1980s due to their perceived danger as a saturated fat caused companies to substitute trans fats instead of them, unaware of their health-damaging effects.A repellent made from coconut oil can be used to prevent tungiasis-causing sand fleas from invading the body.
Uses In food
Coconut oil is commonly used in cooking, especially for frying and is a common flavor in many South Asian curries. It has been used for cooking (in tropical parts of the world) for thousands of years. In recent years, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has become increasingly popular in health and natural food circles and with vegans. It was described in a New York Times article as having a “haunting, nutty,” flavor that also has a touch of sweetness, which works well in baked goods, pastries, and sautés. Coconut oil is used by movie theatre chains to pop popcorn, adding a large amount of saturated fat in the process. Coconut oil (along with Laurel leaf oil and palm kernel oil) contains a large proportion of lauric acid, which is converted to monolaurin in the body, a fat otherwise found only in breast milk. Lauric acid is destroyed by some oil processing methods.
Other culinary uses include replacing solid fats produced through hydrogenation in baked and confectionery goods. Hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated coconut oil is often used in non-dairy creamers, and snack foods including popcorn. Hydrogenated coconut oil is also sold in Australia under the brand-name Copha and is the main ingredient in Australian snacks such as, Chocolate crackles and White Christmas.
The smoke point of coconut oil is 177 °C (351 °F).
Uses In Industry
Coconut oil has been tested for use as a feedstock for biodiesel to be used as a diesel engine fuel. In this manner, it can be applied to power generators and transport using diesel engines. Since straight coconut oil has a high gelling temperature (22–25 °C), a high viscosity, and a minimum combustion chamber temperature of 500 °C (932 °F) (to avoid polymerization of the fuel), coconut oil typically is transesterified to make biodiesel. Use of B100 (100% biodiesel) is possible only in temperate climates, as the gel point is approximately 10 °C (50 °F). The oil must meet the Weihenstephan standard better source needed] for pure vegetable oil used as a fuel, otherwise moderate to severe damage from carbonisation and clogging will occur in an unmodified engine.
The Philippines, Vanuatu, Samoa, and several other tropical island countries are using coconut oil as an alternative fuel source to run automobiles, trucks, and buses, and to power generators.[better source needed] Coconut oil is currently used as a fuel for transport in the Philippines. Further research into the potential of coconut oil as a fuel for electricity generation is being carried out in the islands of the Pacific, although to date it appears that it is not useful as a fuel source due to the cost of labour and supply constraints.
Coconut oil has been tested for use as an engine lubricant and as a transformer oil.
Acids derived from coconut oil can be used as herbicides.
Coconut oil (and derivatives, such as coconut fatty acid) are used as raw materials in the manufacture of surfactants such as cocamidopropyl betaine, cocamide MEA, and cocamide DEA.
Coconut oil can be used as a skin moisturizer, helping with dry skin and reduces protein loss when used in hair. Coconut oil can also be used as sexual lubricant, although it can damage latex condoms.
Before the advent of electrical lighting, coconut oil was the primary oil used for illumination in India and was exported as cochin oil.
Coconut oil is an important base ingredient for the manufacture of soap. Soap made with coconut oil tends to be hard, although it retains more water than those made with other oils and therefore increases manufacturer yields. It is more soluble in hard water and salt water than other soaps allowing it to lather more easily. A basic coconut oil soap is clear when melted and a bright white when hardened.
101 uses for Coconut Oil from http://wellnessmama.com/5734/101-uses-for-coconut-oil/
1-In cooking as a great oil with a high smoke point. Great for baking, stir-frys or as a dairy free replacement to butter.
2-Taken supplementally for daily energy
3-As a coffee creamer when emulsified into coffee (The only way I’ll drink coffee)
4-On the skin as a basic lotion
5-In homemade lotion bars for soft, smooth skin
6-In homemade deodorant or deodorant bars
7-As an eye-makeup remover
8-As a cloth diaper safe diaper cream (just rub on baby’s bottom)
9-In making your own Remineralizing Toothpaste
10-To lighten age spots when rubbed directly on the skin
11-To prevent stretch marks during pregnancy
12-To support healthy thyroid function
13-In homemade Mayo without the high PUFA vegetable oils
14-To help increase sun tolerance and avoid burning
15-As a naturally SPF 4 sunscreen
16-In homemade lotion recipes
17-To get rid of cradle cap on baby- just massage in to head, leave on for a few minutes and gently rinse with a warm wash cloth
18-Topically to kill yeast or yeast infections
19-As a delicious tropical massage oil
20-It’s high Lauric acid and MCFA content helps boost metaboism
21-A tiny dab rubbed on your hands and then through hair will help get rid of friz
22-As an intensive nighttime facial moisturizer
23-Mixed with equal parts sugar for a smoothing body scrub (use in the shower)
24-Rubbed on lips as a natural chap stick
25-Topically, can help skin heal faster after injury or infection
26-Directly on the perineum to help heal after birth
27-As an incredibly intensive natural conditioner- Rub into dry hair, put a shower cap on and leave for several hours
28-On feet to fight athlete’s foot or tor fungus
29-In place of Lanolin cream on nursing nipples to sooth irritation (also great for baby!)
30-Can help sooth psoriasis or eczema
31-There is some evidence that regular ingestion of coconut oil can help prevent or reverse Alzheimers
32-With apple cider vinegar as a natural treatment for lice that actually works
33-In natural Homemade Sunscreen
34-In healthy brain boosting snack for kids like Coconut Clusters
35-In a filling and energy boosting Brain Powder Smoothie
36-Rub coconut oil on the inside of your nose to help alleviate allergy symptoms
37-Nursing moms can take 3-4 tablespoons a day (and Vitamin D) to increase milk supply and nutrients
38-There is some evidence that coconut oil helps digestion and may even kill intestinal parasites or yeast
39-Mix a tablespoon with a tablespoon of chia seeds for an all-day energy boost (do NOT take this at night!)
40-Can help improve insulin levels
41-Oil pulling with coconut oil and a drop of oregano oil helps improve gum health
42-Can help improve cholesterol ratios
43-Blend a tablespoon into hot tea to help speed recovery from cold or flu
44-In Homemade Natural Bug-Off Lotion Bars
45-As a replacement for vegetable oils in any recipe
46-Better for high-temperature cooking than olive or vegetable oils
47-Can help reduce appearance of varicose veins
48-After initial heat is gone, can help speed healing of sunburn
49-Is an immediate source of energy when eaten and isn’t stored as fat
50-As a natural personal lubricant that won’t disturb vaginal flora
51-As a naturally antibacterial skin cream
52-In natural homemade diaper cream
53-As a natural shave cream and after shave lotion
54-When used consistently on skin it can help get rid of cellulite
55-To season cast iron skillets
56-It’s anti-inflammatory properties can help lessen arthritis
57-Can reduce the itch of mosquito bites
58-Can help resolve acne when used regularly
59-Can be rubbed into scalp daily to stimulate hair growth
60-I’ve used in kids ears to help speed ear infection healing
61-On split ends to de-frizz
62-A small amount can be rubbed into real leather to soften and condition (shiny leather only… test a small area first)
63-By itself as a great tanning oil
64-Mixed with salt to remove dry skin on feet
65-Can help speed weight loss when consumed daily
66-Can help improve sleep when taken daily
67-Can be used to speed healing of fungal infections when taken internally and used externally
68-A tablespoon melted into a cup of warm tea can help sooth a sore throat
69-To help sooth the itch of chicken pox or poison ivy
70-It has been shown to increase absorption of calcium and magnesium
71-Internally as part of the protocol to help remineralize teeth
72-Some evidence shows that the beneficial fats in coconut oil can help with depression and anxiety
73-By itself as a natural deodorant
74-By itself or with baking soda as a naturally whitening toothpaste
75-For pets struggling with skin issues when used externally
76-Some evidence suggests that the beneficial fats in coconut oil are helpful for those with Autism
77-In homemade vapor rub
78-As a safe cooking oil for deep frying
79-A tablespoon taken before each meal can help improve digestion
80-Can be taken in warm ginger tea to sooth heartburn or nausea
81-As a completely natural baby lotion
82-On hands after doing dishes to avoid dry skin
83-Mixed with catnip, rosemary, or mint essential oils as a natural bug repellent
84-Can be used on mom’s nipple and baby’s mouth to help treat thrush
85-Many use it as an anti-aging facial moisturizer
86-Use to make coconut cream concentrate for a brain boosting snack
87-Can be used internally and externally to speed recovery from UTIs
88-When taken regularly, it can help fight candida
89-When taken regularly, it can boost hormone production
90-Can relieve the pain of hemorrhoids when used topically
91-Can boost circulation and help those who often feel cold
92-On cuticles to help nails grow
93-Rub into elbows daily to help alleviate dry, flaky elbows
94-Add to smoothies to give them a nutritional boost
95-Internally during pregnancy to help provide baby necessary fats for 96-development (especially when taken with Fermented Cod Liver Oil)
96-In any recipes where vegetable oils are used
97-Whipped with shea butter for a soothing body balm
98-One reader swears by using coconut oil to treat yeast infection. She suggests soaking a tampon in it and inserting the tampon for a few hours.
99-Naturally clears up cold sores
100-Ingesting coconut oil daily can help with allergy symptoms
101-Ingesting coconut oil daily can increase mental alertness
Price: Rm 20.00/ 1 Litre
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