An adenoma can be defined as a curable tumor that grows up from epithelial tissue. Adenomas can develop from many organs including the adrenal glands, colon, pituitary gland, thyroid, etc. Colon adenomas are commonly known as adenomatous polyps. Even though adenomas are not cancerous, but they have the capability to become cancerous. Most colorectal cancer maturates from adenomatous polyps.


Adenomas that transform into cancer are referred to as adenocarcinomas. Colon cancer screening assists identify and discard adenomas before they become severe. The bigger size adenomas have greater chance to become cancerous. For instance, if a colonoscopy were to discover an adenoma in the colon the size of a nickel, there’d be a 30-50% probability that it would become cancerous.

Adenomas are of three types which are tubular, tubulovillous, and villous. The most common are tubular and they have tube-like structure. Villous are the usually infrequent and have a sort of cockle, frilly structure. Tubulovillous are usually mix between the two and occur less commonly than tubular, but more commonly than villous.

Treatment options

When this tumor is discovered, the doctors discuss treatment options with the patient to decide the most suitable treatment plan based on the kind of tumor exist. Most adenoma tumors are inactive, and they do not secrete hormones. Although active adenoma tumors cause an excessive secretion of hormones like growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone.


Medication treatments may help by obstructing the excess hormones production and can shrink certain types of pituitary adenomas. Prolactin hormone secreting tumors are usually treated with cabergoline and bromocriptine. These medications decline prolactin production and usually reduce size of the tumor.

These medications are so effective. Growth hormone secreting tumors can be treated with two groups of medications. These medications are usually recommended when surgery has been ineffective in treating excess hormone secretion:

Somatostatin analog drugs decline growth hormone secretion and may decrease the size of the tumor.
Pegvisomant blocks the acts of excess growth hormone secretion on the body.


Surgery is the basic treatment recommendation for pituitary adenomas. The efficiency of surgery count on the type of the tumor, location of the tumor and size of the tumor.

Transphenoidal endoscopic tumor removal

In this procedure, the pituitary adenoma is discard through the nasal cavity with the help of a microscope and endoscope-assisted technique that results in no visible cut. This surgery was done through an external cut under the lip.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high energy rays to abolish pituitary tumors. Radiation therapy is usually recommended when these tumors persist or coming back after surgery and cause symptoms not cured by medications. It also may use if surgery is not possible.

Removal of colon adenoma

Doctors use these steps in removing of colon adenoma.


This procedure is used to treat colon adenoma. In this procedure a small colon polyps can be snared by the help of wire loop that cuts and cauterizes their stalks to prevent bleeding.

Endoscopic mucosal resection

In this procedure a salt water solution is injected under the polyp to ascend and detached it from the colon lining before a snare removes it. Endoscopic mucosal resection is mostly used on large polyps.


Colon polyps that are so large to snare or can’t be reached safely are usually surgically removed. In most cases doctors use minimally invasive incisions, which results in the form of faster and less painful progress than conventional surgery.

Colon and rectum removal

If there is a rare hereditary polyp condition, like familial adenomatous polyposis, so doctors may recommend removing the whole colon and rectum by ileoanal anastamosis. In most cases, ileoanal anastomosis can be done laparoscopically.

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